【英検1級】2022年第2回のReading Partの回答と訳


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A: Did the chairperson say why he was resigning?

B: No, he refused to (divulge) the reason. He said it was strictly a private matter.

1 divulge  2 condone  3 shun  4 elude


The prime minister’s position began to look increasingly (precarious) as more d more politicians left the party to join the new one.

1 propitious  2 lustrous 3 precarious 4 spasmodic


Although the man did not tell the police any outright lies, he left out several (salient) details that would have made it clear the accident had been his fault.

1 irate  2 dilapidated  3 ravenous  4 salient


While he was cleaning out his garage, Ken cut his hand on a sharp nail that was ( protruding ) from the wall.

1 fretting 2 mustering 3 protruding 4 replenishing


Glen somehow (deluge) himself into thinking Heather was in love with him, even after she made it clear that she was not interested in him.

1 deluded 2 parried 3 quenched 4 inundated


Researchers have found that sharing a traumatic experience can create a feeling of (camaraderie) between people, often leading to lifelong friendships.

1 camaraderie 2 defamation 3 calamity 4 exuberance


The police found no proof of the girl’s (complicity) in the robbery committed by her boyfriend, so they let her go free.

1 mayhem 2 debacle 3 complicity 4 gibberish


The team’s (erratic) performance this season has confused everyone. In one game, they might play very well, while in the next, they might make numerous mistakes.

1 scrupulous 2 erratic 3 methodical 4 gleaming


The defendant’s (acquittal) surprised everyone in the courtroom. They all thought the jury would return with a guilty verdict.

1 referral 2 sojourn 3 acquittal 4 snare


A: What’s your new colleague like?

B: We don’t get along very well. He’s been (antagonistic) toward me from day one. It’s almost as though he’s looking to fight with me.

1 eclectic 2 intrinsic 3 apathetic 4 antagonistic


The weather was warm and humid, so as soon as Percy left the hotel, he began to (perspire) heavily. In no time at all, his shirt was stained with sweat.

1 patronize 2 truncate 3 perspire 4 transcend


After he was arrested for robbery, Brad called his sister and asked her to pay his (bail). However, she did not have the $10,000 needed for his release.

1 void  2 effigy  3 stint 4 bail


As a young boy, Evan was (afflicted) with a lung disease that made it impossible for him to participate in sports aytivities at school.

1 bolstered 2 afflicted 3 indulged 4 confiscated


A: Steve, can you explain this graph?

B: The blue lines (denote) our company’s expenses, and the green lines represent the volume of sales we made last year.

1 denote  2 smear  3 decry  4 squint


The manager’s assumption that his employee was stealing money proved to be (erroneous). An accounting mistake was the cause of the problem.

1 erroneous 2 perpetual 3 rigorous 4 profuse


The city council ordered the (demolition) of the old building because it was too dangerous to leave it standing any longer.

1 intimation  2 demolition 3 allocation 4 extortion


Helen asked her neighbor to water her garden while she was away.

Unfortunately, he forgot, and many of her flowers had (wilted) by the time she returned.

1 tarnished 2 polarized 3 wilted 4 slighted


Although the film’s subject matter is very serious, There are moments of (levity) that prevent it from becoming too depressing.

1 levity 2 confluence 3 impetus 4 hegemony


Yesterday, Andrew received a (cryptic) e-mail from an unknown address. No matter how hard he tried, he could not understand what it was trying to say.

1 poignant 2 resilient 3 cryptic 4 detectable


The handmade furniture brand is known for its (fastidious) attention to detail. Each piece is crafted with great care.

1 relenting  2 tasteless  3 fastidious  4 insular


When Roger tried to pick up his brother’s baby for the first time, she ( ) so much that Roger had trouble holding her properly.

1 squirmed 2 cleaved 3 scrounged 4 lampooned


Peer pressure can have a powerful influence on teenagers. When (egged on) by friends, they can be persuaded to do some very foolish things.

1 bogged down  2 hitched up  3 goofed off  4 egged on


When Michelle’s neighbors have loud parties, she turns up her music to (drown out) the noise from next door.

1 fritter away  2 lap up  3 drown out  4 cave in


The car company is working to (cast off) its old-fashioned image and appeal to young people by designing modern-looking cars with high-tech devices.

1 cast off  2 call out  3 dial up  4 box in


The accusations of misconduct (leveled at) the politician by former staff members have the potential to end his political career.

1 leveled at  2 drummed into  3 banked on  4 pitched for

A: 議長は辞任の理由を言いましたか。
B: いいえ、彼はその理由を(明かす)ことを拒否しました。彼はあくまで個人的なことだと言っていた。
1.打ち明ける 2.容認する 3.避ける 4.言い逃れる

1 推進力がある 2 光栄である 3 不安定である 4 激変している

1 怒りっぽい 2 荒れ果てた 3 渇望している 4 顕著な

ガレージを掃除していたとき、ケンは壁から( 突き出ていた) 鋭い釘で手を切った。
1 あせっている 2 集まっている 3 突出している 4 補給している

1 惑わされた 2 受け流された 3 癒された 4 氾濫した

1 仲間意識 2 中傷 3 災難 4 高揚感

1 騒乱 2 大失敗 3 共謀 4 失言

1 几帳面な 2 不規則な 3 几帳面な 4 きらびやかな

1 紹介 2 そうじ 3 無罪 4 ひっかかり

A: あなたの新しい同僚はどんな人ですか。
B: 私たちはあまり仲が良くないんです。彼は初日から私に対して(反感を)持っているんだ。まるで私と喧嘩をしようとしているみたいです。
1 折衷的な 2 本質的な 3 無関心な 4 敵対的な

1 ひいきする 2 切り捨てる 3 汗をかく 4 超越する

1 むなしさ、喪失感 2 肖像、彫像 3 割り当てられた仕事 4 保釈金

1 支えられていた 2 苦しんでいた 3 放任された 4 没収された

A: スティーブ、このグラフを説明してくれる?
B: 青い線は私たちの会社の経費を、緑の線は去年の売上高を(表しているんだ)。

1 示す 2 中傷する 3 否定する 4 目を細める

1 誤る 2 永続的な 3 厳格な 4 豊富な

1 内示 2 取り壊し 3 割り当て 4 強要

1 変色した 2 偏光した 3 しおれた 4 軽視された

1 朗らかさ 2 合流 3 推進力 4 覇気

1痛烈な 2弾力性のある 3不可解な 4検知可能な

1 拗ねる 2 味気ない 3 こだわり 4 偏狭な

ロジャーが兄の赤ん坊を初めて抱き上げようとしたとき、赤ん坊はとても( もだえていた)ので、ロジャーはうまく抱くことができなかった。
1 もだえていた 2 切り裂いた 3 たかった(せびった) 4 激しく風刺する

1 行き詰まった 2 結婚した 3 サボった 4 そそのかした

1 浪費した 2 ガツガツ食べる 3 かき消す 4 崩れ落ちる

1 捨て去る 2 召集する 3 ダイアルアップする 4箱詰めにする

1 〜に向けられた 2 (心に)強く焼きつけられる 3 ~に頼られる 4 〜に投げられる


Spider Survival

A fascinating species of jumping spider found across the eastern United States called Synemosyna formica has been observed ( 26 ). Biologists theorize this behavior stems from the fact that the spiders t their solitary lifestyles, tend to be attractive targets for many predators. t on the other hand, are less appealing prey, owing to their powerful jaws and e fact that they are rarely unaccompanied; a predator attempting to feast on one ant, for instance, would likely have to fight off numerous other aggressive ones that come to its aid. Taking advantage of ants’ fierce reputation, the spiders have developed certain behaviors to impersonate the insects, such in a motion resembling that of ants’ antennae. When successfully performed, this helps the spiders avert predatory attention.

          S. formica has also come to bear a strong physical resemblance to ants. But while the adaptations are helpful for deceiving predators, they ( 27 ). The spiders’ back legs appear to have evolved to be longer and thicker, and their bodies have become slender and segmented, accentuating their antlike appearance when viewed from above — a common vantage point for predators. Yet these changes appear to have rendered the spiders unable to perform the leaping action for which related species are known—a consequence, perhaps, of the constraint of an antlike structure and body weight, according to biologists. And since this ability, which is crucial for hunting prey, has diminished, spiders’ survival could be in jeopardy.

          One mystery is how S. formica manages to ( 28 ). Most types of jumping spiders employ showy, elaborate rituals to entice prospective partners. Attracting partners is no less important for S. formica, but such acts of courtship in the open would likely draw unwanted attention from predators. To get around this, the spiders seemingly recognize each other from afar. Although they appear able to signal that they are not ants without sacrificing the guise of their antlike behavior, the exact mechanisms behind this discreet action remain unclear.  Biologists hope that by expanding research into these peculiar creatures they can deepen their understanding of how survival instincts drive adaptations in animals.

( 26 )

1 trying to overpower larger species

2 significantly altering its diet

3 helping another species survive

4 mimicking another creature

( 27 )

1 also assist the spiders in other ways

2 have made some body parts

3 may have come at a cost

4 likely occurred for other reasons

( 28 )

1 locate new habitats

2 find potential mates

3 conceal its breeding locations

4 prevent predators from finding it


アメリカ東部に生息するハエトリグモの一種、Synemosyna formicaが観察された(26 )。一方、アリはその強力な顎と、一匹で行動することがほとんどないことから、あまり魅力的な獲物ではない。例えば、一匹のアリを食べようとした捕食者は、助けに来た他の多くの攻撃的なアリを撃退しなければならないだろう。そのため、クモはアリの触角のような動きをすることで、アリになりすますという行動をとっている。これが成功すると、クモは捕食者の注意をそらすことができる。
また、S. formicaはアリに身体的に酷似するようになった。しかし、この適応は捕食者を欺くのに役立つ一方で、( 27 ). クモの後ろ足は長く太く進化し、体は細長く分節化し、捕食者がよく使う上からの目線で見ると、アリのような外見を際立たせているように見えるのである。しかし、こうした変化により、クモは近縁種で知られているような跳躍動作をすることができなくなったようだ。生物学者によれば、おそらくアリのような構造と体重という制約の結果なのだという。生物学者によれば、おそらくアリのような構造と体重の制約の結果である。獲物を狩るために不可欠なこの能力が低下したため、クモの生存が危ぶまれるようになったのである。
一つの謎は、S. formicaがどうやって( 28 )をしているのか、ということだ。ほとんどの種類のジャンピングスパイダーは、派手で手の込んだ儀式を行い、見込み客を誘い込む。しかし、野外で求愛行動をとると、捕食者から嫌われる可能性が高い。そこで、クモたちは遠くからお互いを認識しているように見える。このように、クモはアリのような行動を犠牲にすることなく、自分たちがアリではないことを知らせることができるようだが、この控えめな行動の正確なメカニズムはまだわかっていない。 生物学者たちは、この奇妙な生き物の研究を進めることで、動物の生存本能がどのように適応を促すのかについて理解を深めることができると期待している。

( 26 )
1 大型の種に打ち勝とうとする
2 食生活を大きく変える
3 他の種の生存を助ける
4 他の生物に擬態する

( 27 )
1 他の方法でクモを助けることもある
2 体の一部を作ることができた
3 役に立たない代償を払ったかもしれない
4 他の理由で起こったと思われる

( 28 )
1 新しい生息地を探す
2 潜在的な交尾相手を見つける
3 繁殖場所を隠す
4 捕食者に見つからないようにするため

Valuing the Economy

          The idea that war is beneficial for the economy is familiar to many people, and it is based on the assumption that major conflicts bring huge demand for production of supplies, stimulating job creation. Some experts, however, ( 29 ). Ultimately, most of what is created during massive arms-production efforts is use up or destroy ed during battle, whereas the same fu and resources would provide significant long-term benefits if devoted to generating consumer goods and services. In fact, the experts note, this was observed after World War Il, when the United States experienced a surprising period of prosperity following the government’s dramatic reduction in military spending.

          In recent years, economist Tyler Cowen has been an advocate for a revised theory of the economic merits associated with war. Accepting that military engagement itself cannot possibly be positive for economies, he argues that it is the ( 30 ) that is beneficial. Cowen contends that the recent stagnation of some economies around the world can be attributed to a pervading lack of urgency that slowly develops as a result of prolonged Citing examples such as the tremendous innovations that came out of the long period of hostility during the Cold War, when both the United States and the Soviet Union feared the other’s tremendous military capabilities, Cowen believes it is the potential for armed conflict that keeps governments on their toes, pressuring them to liberalize the economy and commit funds to science and technology among other things.

          Cowen is not proposing that nations should go around picking fights, however. In fact, he goes on to say that since weapons have become so much more destructive these days, the fallout that would occur if war actually broke out would catastrophic, so economic stagnation might be a relatively good thing in today’s world. He suggests, therefore, that it may be better ( 31 ). Just as there has been a recent realization that environmental devastation is not worth the benefits associated with the rampant use of fossil fuels, it is likely that the potential risks of constantly being on the verge of war cannot be justified by the rewards.

( 29)

1 claim there is another reason for this

2 point out that the idea is flawed

3 underestimate the cost of war

4 say the idea only applies to wars

( 30 )

1 spending on weapons

2 threat of conflict

3 gaining of territory

4 aftermath of war

( 31 )

1 for nations to develop better technology

2 to prevent short-term losses

3 for people to use resources more efficiently

4 to trade growth for peace


          戦争が経済にとって有益であるという考え方は多くの人になじみがあり、それは大きな紛争が物資の生産に莫大な需要をもたらし、雇用創出を刺激するという前提に基づくものである。しかし、一部の専門家は、( 29 )。結局のところ、大規模な武器生産活動で生み出されたもののほとんどは戦闘中に使い果たされるか破壊される。一方、同じ燃料や資源を消費財やサービスの生産に充てれば、長期的に大きな利益がもたらされるであろう。実際、第一次世界大戦後、米国は軍事費を大幅に削減し、驚くべき繁栄を経験したのである。

          近年、経済学者のTyler Cowenは、戦争に関連する経済的メリットに関する理論の改訂を提唱している。軍事行動そのものが経済にプラスになることはありえないとして、プラスになるのは( 30 )であると主張している。コーウェンは、最近の世界の一部の経済の停滞は、長期にわたる敵対関係の結果として徐々に形成される切迫感の欠如に起因すると主張している。コーウェンは、米ソ双方が相手の強大な軍事力を恐れた冷戦時代の長い敵対関係から生まれた驚異的な技術革新などの例を挙げ、政府が経済の自由化や科学技術への資金投入などのプレッシャーにさらされ続けるのは、武装紛争の可能性があるからだと考える。

          しかし、コーウェン氏は、国家がケンカをすることを推奨しているのではない。むしろ、武器の破壊力が増している現在、戦争が起きれば壊滅的な打撃を受けるので、経済の停滞は現代では比較的良いことかもしれないと言う。したがって、そのほうがよいかもしれないと提案している(31 )。化石燃料の乱用に伴う環境破壊が利益に見合わないことが最近わかってきたように、常に戦争の危機に瀕していることの潜在的なリスクは、その報酬に見合うものではないと思われるのである。

( 29)
1 別の理由があると主張する
2 その考え方に欠陥があることを指摘する
3 戦争のコストを過小評価している
4 その考え方は戦争にしか適用されないと言う

( 30 )
1 武器への支出
2 紛争の脅威
3 領土を獲得する
4 戦争の後始末

( 31 )
1 国家がより良い技術を開発するため
2 短期的な損失を防ぐため
3 人々がより効率的に資源を利用できるようにする
4 平和のために成長を交換する



     In their efforts to develop new medicines and foodstuffs, multinational corporations frequently rely on indigen0US and other resources. This sometimes leads to accusations of biopiracy, a term referring to attempts to patent products found with the aid of indigenous peoples without providing them with fair compensation. It is generally agreed that when enlisting the aid of indigenous peoples in this way, it is essential to have informed consent regarding how the resources may be used, including the possibility that they will be turned into lucrative products. It is also important to draw up agreements detailing the rights and obligations of both parties before the start of any cooperation. However, such agreements often reflect fundamental differences between indigenous and other worldviews, which frequently lead to misunderstandings and exploitation. While Western societies, for instance, place emphasis on legal protections such as patents and trademarks, indigenous groups often find the concept of an individual or company possessing exclusive rights to natural resources and organisms to be incomprehensible. As a result, many indigenous groups have brought lawsuits against corporations that they say deceived them.

    Furthermore, although legislation and international treaties have been enacted to combat biopiracy creating unambiguous and comprehensive regulations has proved extremely challenging. In fact, the term biopiracy itself lacks a single unified definition, and regulations regarding it vary among nations, making it difficult to stamp out unethical practices. The Nagoya Protocol, for example, was designed to be a framework on which nations could build their own legislation to control access to genetic resources and ensure that benefits resulting from the use of such resources are shared. Yet the agreement has been interpreted and implemented in widely differing ways, and it has only been signed by a relatively small percentage of nations. These factors are a major reason why the practice of biopiracy has shown little sign of ending.

    Legislation targeting biopiracy may also have unintended consequences. One group of scientists published an article arguing international agreements related to curbing biopiracy are already causing nations that are home to precious resources and organisms to throw up obstacles to urgently needed research. In particular, the science of taxonomy, which involves the discovery an classification of species for conservation purposes, has been significantly hampered by such international agreements. The scientists write that “biodiversity research as seemingly become suspect in the minds of many regulatory bodies, owing to fear that a taxonomic discovery today might conceivably translate into a commercial development tomorrow.” Researchers in some countries have become reluctant to share specimens with scientists abroad, and others complain the regulatory hurdles they need to clear to obtain permits are hindering research, including conservation studies. On the other hand, the scientists who wrote the article note that, in the case of medical research, the development of advanced technologies such as genetic engineering means that obtaining access to organisms known to indigenous peoples could become less important. This would not only allow crucial scientific research to continue unimpeded but also cause current anti-biopiracy agreements to lose their relevance.

(32) When multinational corporations make agreements with indigenous people,

1 there has been a tendency for both parties to entrust the drawing up of legal rights such as patents and trademarks to an independent party.

2 there are often significant differences in the way that parties involved understand fundamental concepts contained in the documents.

3 the parties involved generally disagree more about issues regarding medicines than they do about other types of products.

4 there is a need to explain not only the benefits indigenous peoples will receive but also the fact that their cooperation is vital to ongoing research.

(33) In the second paragraph, what does the author of the passage state about efforts to prevent biopiracy?

1 Legislation and treaties would be much more effective if both corporations and indigenous peoples were consulted during their creation.

2 There have been some signs that biopiracy is declining, but indigenous peoples say that the efforts have not gone far enough.

3 Local laws have generally been much more successful at decreasing biopiracy than international treaties have.

4 Their lack of success is largely the result of the difficulty of creating clear rules that every country will agree to follow.

(34) Which of the following statements would the scientists who wrote the article mentioned in the final paragraph most likely agree with?

1 Biopiracy is often disguised as conservation research, so this type of research should be more carefully regulated.

2 Although medical technologies like genetic engineering are advancing, they are creating greater risks of indigenous people being harmed by biopiracy.

3 Regulations designed to prevent biopiracy have ty potential interfere with essential research that could save endangered species

4 Scientists’ attempts to steal taxonomy research from one another present a far more serious problem than biopiracy does.



(32) 多国籍企業が先住民族と協定を結ぶ場合。

1 特許や商標などの法的権利の策定を、当事者双方が第三者機関に委託する傾向がある。
2 文書に含まれる基本的な概念の理解の仕方に、当事者間で大きな相違があることが多い。
3 一般に、医薬品に関する問題については、他の種類の製品よりも関係者の意見が一致しない。
4 先住民が受ける利益だけでなく、研究を継続する上で彼らの協力が不可欠であることを説明する必要がある。


1 法規制や条約は、その作成時に企業と先住民の両方が協議されれば、より効果的なものになる。
2 バイオパイラシーが減少している兆候はあるが、先住民はその取り組みが十分でないと言っている。
3 バイオパイラシーを減少させるためには、国際条約よりも現地の法律の方がはるかに効果的である。
4 国際条約が成功しないのは、すべての国が同意する明確なルールを作ることが困難なことが主な原因である。

(34) 最終段落で紹介した論文を書いた科学者は、次のどの記述に最も同意するだろうか。
1 生物学的海賊行為は保護研究に偽装されることが多いので、この種の研究はより慎重に規制されるべきである。
2 遺伝子工学などの医療技術は進歩しているが、生物学的海賊行為によって先住民が被害を受けるリスクは高まっている。
3 生物学的海賊行為を防止するための規制は、絶滅危惧種を救うための重要な研究を妨害する可能性がある。
4 科学者が互いに分類学研究を盗もうとすることは、バイオパイラシーよりもはるかに深刻な問題である。

The Early Solar System

          The origin of our solar system has long been the subject of speculation. The most widely accepted explanation is the nebular hypothesis, which argues that the solar system began as a massive cloud of interstellar gas and debris that collapsed under immense gravitational forces. The resulting mass of swirling matter eventually formed into pockets of material that then came together to become the sun and planets. While this accounts well for some aspects of the solar system’s formation, other predictions derived from the hypothesis do not line up with the solar system’s current state. For example, in computer simulations based on the hypothesis, the masses of certain planets and the regions in which hose planets reside were inconsistent with current astronomical observation. The discrepancies, however, could be due to the fact that the nebular hypothesis was originally based on the assumption that planets in our solar system formed in their current locations and have mostly remained there.

          Some of these mysteries may be close to being solved. The smaller planets of inner solar system are believed to have formed from matter able to withstand planets the of sun’s tremendous heat, such as rock and metal. Conversely, the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn are thought to have formed in regions farther from the sun, beyond what is referred to as the frost line, as temperatures at this distance are low enough for the matter that makes up gas giants to solidify. Scientists, however, have observed Jupiter-like gas planets in distant solar systems—nicknamed “hot Jupiters”—orbiting their suns at surprisingly close distances. To explain this, scientists proposed the concept of planetary migration, and a scenario named the “grand tack” was modeled, using Jupiter’s formation as a basis, to test the concept. In the scenario, Jupiter takes shape beyond the frost line, as is expected, but migrates toward the inner solar system, imitating hot Jupiters. However, as a result of gravitational forces from our solar system’s other gas giant, out to its current location farther from the sun. Despite sounding far-fetched, the scenario has been praised for plausibly explaining why hot Jupiters exist.

           The grand tack scenario may also provide clarity for other apparent inconsistencies in our solar system. When the computer simulations based on the nebular hypothesis projected that Mars should be much larger than it currently is, the proposed grand tack migration of Jupiter suggested an explanation. By factoring in Jupiter’s trajectory in the grand tack scenario, scientists realized the gas giant was likely scattering to the sun that would otherwise have greatly increased Mars’s mass. Furthermore, had Jupiter not made its migration, planets in the inner solar system, which includes the area where Earth is now, could very well have become larger, uninhabitable worlds shrouded by gas. The vast majority of the inner regions of other known solar systems are populated by such planets, so scientists believe our solar system may be extremely unique in this regard. If the grand tack scenario proves to be correct, humankind owes a great deal of gratitude to Jupiter for the planet’s journey through the solar system.

(35) According to the author of the passage, what is one problem with the nebular hypothesis?

1 Although it accurately predicts that planets can change locations in the solar system, its predictions do not apply to other objects in space.

2 It does not sufficiently explain how gravitational forces affect he size and location of the sun during the early formation of our solar system.

3 Using it to model the history of our solar system has produced results that do not match what we currently know about certain planets.

4 It was based partly on inaccurate astronomical theories about the manner in which solar systems in distant areas of the universe formed.

(36) “Hot Jupiters” are significant because

1 they are evidence that the temperatures of frost lines detected in other solar systems have little connection to how planets are formed.

2 their size strongly implies that many of the other planets found in our solar system were once much smaller than they are now.

3 they support theories suggesting that the size of a star is directly related to the orbiting distance of its planets.

4 their existence appears to provide evidence to support the idea that planets o not always remain in the same orbits.

(37) What can be inferred about the “grand tack” scenario based on the third paragraph?

1 It could reasonably explain why Mars was not pulled into the sun and destroyed during the early days of the solar system.

2 The probability of life evolving on Earth would likely have been a great deal lower if it had never occurred.

3 There is a lower chance of life existing on large planets in solar systems where such events have taken place.

4 Solar systems where such events have never happened are likely to have planets that resemble Jupiter and Saturn.



(35) この文章の著者によれば、星雲仮説の問題点は何か。

1 惑星が太陽系内で位置を変えることは正確に予測しているが、その予測は宇宙空間の他の物体には当てはまらない。
2 太陽系形成の初期に、重力が太陽の大きさや位置にどのように影響したかを十分に説明できない。
3 太陽系の歴史をモデル化するために使用した結果、特定の惑星について現在わかっていることと一致しない結果が出た。
4 宇宙の遠方にある太陽系がどのように形成されたかに関する、不正確な天文学的理論に一部基づいている。

(36) 「ホットジュピター」が重要なのは、以下の理由による。

1 他の太陽系で検出された霜柱の温度は、惑星の形成方法とはあまり関係がないことを示す証拠である。
2 その大きさは、太陽系に存在する他の惑星の多くが、かつて今よりもずっと小さかったことを強く示唆している。
3 恒星の大きさが惑星の公転距離と直接関係していることを示唆する理論を裏付ける。
4 惑星は常に同じ軌道を描いているわけではないという説を支持する証拠を提供しているように見える。


1 太陽系の初期に火星が太陽に引き込まれて破壊されなかった理由を合理的に説明できる。
2 地球上で生命が進化する確率は、それが起こらなかった場合、大幅に低下していた可能性が高い。
3 そのような事象が起こったことのある太陽系の大きな惑星では、生命が存在する確率が低くなる。
4 そのような現象が起きなかった太陽系には、木星や土星のような惑星が存在する可能性が高い。


The 1918 Irish Uprising

   On the eve of World War I, Ireland, which had been absorbed into the United Kingdom around a century earlier, was on the verge of winning limited self-government, or Home Rule. Although Ireland had political representation in the British Parliament, it lacked its own government, which resulted in poverty, depopulation, and economic exploitation. As a result, nationalism had grown steadily throughout the 1800s, with the Home Rule movement becoming dominant within Irish politics. Since the 1870s, the Irish Parliamentary Party had pursued this agenda, which would allow Ireland a degree of independence in its domestic affairs while still keeping the country within the United Kingdom. The party, led by John Redmond, finally succeeded in getting a Home Rule Bill passed in the British Parliament in 1914.

         There was to be no straightforward route to Home Rule, however. Ireland was divided along religious and political lines, with the South dominated by Catholics who tended to embrace nationalism to some degree, and the North by Protestants who felt more strongly tied to Britain politically and were resolved to remain under the jurisdiction of the British Parliament. In the South, a group known as the Irish Republican Brotherhood found Home Rule to be sufficient because it did not offer true sovereignty. The IRB was so intent on achieving total independence for Ireland that it took up arms, yet it by no means represented mainstream views, even in the South. This became clear with Britain’s involvement in World war Ⅰ in August 1914: the IRB opposed Ireland’s participation in the war, but the Irish Parliamentary Party supported It accepting that the enactment of Home Rule would have to be postponed. The majority of the Irish public agreed, supporting the war in the same way as other UK nationals.

    As Britain focused its military resources on fighting abroad, the IRB leadership believed that fewer soldiers would be available for security purposes in Ireland. So, on April 24 If16 with Britain’s attention diverted by its preparations for a large-scale military offensive near the Somme River in France, the IRB decided the time was ripe for action. Led by a military council that had been formed within the organization, it rose up in armed rebellion against British rule and proclaimed the formation of a republic.

   Around 1,500 people—IRB members along with members of other nationalist groups—occupied various sites throughout Dublin, Ireland’s capital. They had hoped their actions would inspire a wider uprising among the general population, but this did not occur. Moreover, lack of manpower meant they could not capture major railway stations and docks, or, most importantly, Dublin Castle, the British government’s administrative headquarters. Consequently, Britain was able to move soldiers into the city unimpeded and retain control of its administrative center, which proved key. Thus, despite being initially caught off guard, the British quickly gained the upper hand through a swiftly organized counterattack. British troops flooded into the city, and heavy artillery was employed, leading to fire damage and civilian casualties.

   Although they fought valiantly, the rebels were vastly outmanned and outgunned. They were forced back into a defensive position, and it was only a matter of time before they surrendered. The uprising ended on April 29, leaving approximately 450 dead and 2 000 injured, with much of the center of Dublin destroyed.

      British retaliation was prompt and harsh: thousands of people suspected of involvement in the rebellion were rounded up and the leaders were tried and convicted by military courts. Fifteen of the rebels were executed by firing squad following trials that were conducted in secret and without defense attorneys, which British officials later ruled to have been in violation of established military judicial procedures. Given that the rebels had struck during wartime, a military response including conducting the trials in military courts rather than civilian ones—was considered some at the time to be justifiable. However, officials in the British government quickly became concerned about the manner in which the British commanding officer in Ireland was dealing with the rebels and the reaction this might provoke.

       While further executions were halted public opinion against British rule was galvanized as a result of the executions of men whom many Irish people regarded as patriots. The uprising had indirectly become a catalyst for a change in public sentiment. The Home Rule movement lost steam, and there emerged in its place widespread acceptance of the rhetoric of a political party called Sinn Féin, allowing the party to dominate the 1918 UK elections in Ireland. The party refused to take up its seats in the British Parliament and declared independence, which escalated into a guerrilla conflict that culminate in a large part of Ireland achieving the sovereignty the IRB had originally sought. Honored by statues and commemorated annually, the 1916 uprising is now regarded as a central event in Irish history.

(38) According to the passage, what is true regarding the political situation in Ireland in 1914?

1 The outbreak of a major war had caused a conflict to arise between the Irish Parliamentary Party and various Protestant groups that had once supported it.

2 Opposition to the Home Rule Bill because support for the Irish Parliamentary Party had become much weaker.

3 Although it lacked widespread public sup ort, the Irish Republic Brotherhood (IRB) was determined that Ireland should become fully independent from Britain.

4 The debate surrounding Home Rule helped to unite Protestants and Catholics in their opposition to fighting in World War I.

(39) What is one point the author of the passage makes about the uprising that occurred between épÜJ_24-and-29, 1916?

1 If the IRB had waited until the start of the battle near the Somme River, the British may not have had sufficient troops to defeat the rebels.

2 The rebels failed to secure important strategic sites that would have greatly weakened British troops’ ability to defeat them.

3 The British used a large amount of force to strike fear into civilians, thereby limiting the possibility that they might join the rebels.

4 The rebels who took part included people who felt some loyalty to Britain, which made them less willing to harm British troops.

(40) The British reaction following the 1916 uprising was problematic on the grounds that

1 thousands of rebels were found guilty in military courts, despite the fact that few had played any significant role in the fighting.

2 it was later admitted by the government that its own troops had violated many of the same military laws it used to sentence the rebels.

3 the government made the situation worse by encouraging the commanding officer to conduct the rebels’ trials in secret.

4 the way rebel leaders were tried and convicted did not adhere to the correct and proper procedures established by military law.

(41) Which of the following statements best describes the impact of the 1916 uprising?

1 The subsequent political success of Sinn Féin proved the electoral process should have been utilized from the beginning to facilitate change in Ireland.

2 Although the incident itself did not bring about immediate change, eventually led to considerable progress being made toward the rebels’ goal.

3 The uprising was significant because the military tactics employed during it would become invaluable in helping Ireland succeed in later conflicts.

4 Although the event resulted in destruction and loss of life, it was justified because it marked the end of Ireland’s conflict with Britain.









(38) 文章によると、1914 年のアイルランドの政治状況について正しいことは何ですか。

1 大きな戦争の勃発により、アイルランド議会党と、かつてそれを支持していたプロテスタントの諸団体との間に対立が生じた。

2 アイルランド議会党への支持が大幅に低下していたため、自治法案に反対していた。

3 国民の支持は得られなかったが、アイルランド共和国ブラザーフッド(IRB)は、アイルランドが英国から完全に独立することを決意していた。

4 ホームルールをめぐる議論は、第一次世界大戦への参戦に反対するプロテスタントとカトリックの団結に役立った。

(39) この文章の著者が、1916 年 8 月 24 日から 29 日の間に起こった蜂起について述べていることは、何ですか。

1 もしIRBがソンム川付近の戦闘開始まで待っていたら、イギリスは反乱軍を倒すのに十分な兵力を持たなかったかもしれない。

2 反乱軍は、英国軍の打倒能力を大きく弱めることになる重要な戦略拠点を確保することができなかった。

3 イギリス軍は大量の武力で市民に恐怖心を与え、反乱軍に加わる可能性を制限した。

4 参加した反乱軍には、イギリスに対して何らかの忠誠心を持つ人々が含まれており、そのためイギリス軍に危害を加えようとする者が少なかった。

(40) 1916年の蜂起後のイギリスの反応は、以下の理由で問題があった。

1 戦闘で重要な役割を果たした者はほとんどいなかったにもかかわらず、何千人もの反乱軍が軍事法廷で有罪とされた。

2 自国の軍隊が、反乱軍に判決を下すために使用したのと同じ軍法の多くを犯していたことが、後に政府によって認められた。

3 政府は、指揮官が反乱軍の裁判を秘密裏に行うよう奨励し、事態をさらに悪化させた。

4 反乱軍の指導者が裁かれ、有罪判決を受ける方法は、軍法で定められた正しく適切な手続きに従ったものでなかった。

(41) 次の記述のうち、1916 年の蜂起の影響について最もよく表しているものはどれか。

1 シン・フェインのその後の政治的成功は、アイルランドの変化を促進するために、選挙手続を最初から活用すべきだったことを証明した。

2 事件そのものはすぐに変化をもたらすものではなかったが、最終的には反乱軍の目標に向かってかなりの前進をもたらすことになった。

3 この蜂起は、その際に採用された軍事戦術が、後の紛争でアイルランドを成功に導く上で非常に貴重なものとなったという点で、重要な意味を持つ。

4 この事件は破壊と人命の損失をもたらしたが、アイルランドとイギリスの紛争の終結を意味するものであり、正当なものであった。


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